Based on data collected at the time of enrollment, the lesbians and bisexual women were more likely to report the risk factors of obesity, smoking, and had a higher rate of alcohol use. Lesbians who seek care at STD clinics have been found to have approximately twice the rate of bacterial vaginosis compared to heterosexual women attending the same clinics.
Physicians who have knowingly treated homosexual patients have been shown to be less likely to be homophobic. That is why we say that we failed to reject the null hypothesis, rather than we accepted it. The infected woman had tested positive for HIV two years later, and had no other apparent risk factors.
The CDC has never reported a case thought to be the result of female-to-female transmission. State the null hypothesis. This number will vary considerably depending on the field. Viral Sexually Transmitted Diseases Herpes Although herpes type 1 and type 2 are traditionally associated with oral and genital infections, respectively, each viral subtype can infect at either location.
Women wishing to be biologic mothers should be advised that donor insemination through a medical or other licensed facility is optimal.
Finally, lesbians live in a unique psycho-social-economic milieu. Take the questions and make it a positive statement that says a relationship exists correlation studies or a difference exists between the groups experiment study and you have the alternative hypothesis.
In a national probability sample, the prevalence of intimate partner violence was higher between gay men, and lower between lesbian partners compared to heterosexual couples. More urgently, she may want to discuss her risk of acquiring HIV infection and how to reduce this risk.
As a result, many lesbian families pursue international adoption, or children with special needs. Before being accepted as clients, lesbians must: Etiology The etiology of lesbianism is not known, just as the etiology of heterosexual identity is not understood.
Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Syphilis None of these has ever been reported in a lesbian who has never had heterosexual intercourse. There were no seroconversions in a prospective 6-month study of serodiscordant women sexual partners, 49 and no cases identified in a STD clinic survey that included over women who had sex exclusively with women.
A lesbian with a vaginal infection will want to know if she can transmit it to her female partner, and if so, during what specific sexual activities. Population based studies provide the best data. The most frequent activities appear to be mutual masturbation and oral—vaginal sex.
In theory, transmission of the HPV virus should be as 'efficient' between two women as that between a man and a woman. While larger samples are preferable, size alone does not overcome the inevitable biases.
The null hypothesis gives an exact value that implies there is no correlation between the two variables.
Educate yourself about the medical aspects of problems relevant to lesbians. State whether or not the experiment met the minimum requirements of your hypothesis in terms of both percentage and significance. Viral Sexually Transmitted Diseases Herpes Although herpes type 1 and type 2 are traditionally associated with oral and genital infections, respectively, each viral subtype can infect at either location.
Lesbians who seek care at STD clinics have been found to have approximately twice the rate of bacterial vaginosis compared to heterosexual women attending the same clinics. Lifetime lesbians also reported the highest rate of colorectal cancer. If the results show a percentage equal to or lower than the value of the null hypothesis, then the variables are not proven to correlate.
Genetic, prenatal, hormonal, and early childhood influences each may have a role. This is easy to do in your own office; it may still occasionally be necessary to arrange exceptions to 'family only' policies in the hospital setting. Although the sample sizes for the nonheterosexual groups are the largest published to date in this age group, they are quite small from an epidemiologic perspective, and a finding of no difference must be interpreted with caution.
However, this does not mean that the change in the independent variable causes the change in the dependent variable. Stevens 1 points out that there are substantial personal costs to continually maintaining nondisclosure. Koh 45 compared screening testing among lesbians, bisexual women, and heterosexual women recruited from a clinic setting and found that the rate of cholesterol testing was the same, the rate of HIV testing was higher among the lesbians and bisexuals, and mammography and Pap smear rates were the same.
A lesbian with a vaginal infection will want to know if she can transmit it to her female partner, and if so, during what specific sexual activities. The most frequent activities appear to be mutual masturbation and oral—vaginal sex.
First, the sexual behaviors of the lesbian include all those available to the heterosexual woman except for penile—vaginal intercourse, and she needs to know if these behaviors place her at risk for disease.Both health care professionals and the medical research establishment have historically ignored the so-called sexual minorities, including lesbians.
Both health care professionals and the medical research establishment have historically ignored the so-called sexual minorities, including lesbians. Research - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free.
The research or alternative hypothesis (e.g. H1: µ1 µ2) is a statement about what is expected. Derived from the questions posed about the Parent-to-Parent program example in the previous lesson, you, as a researcher, could write the following alternative hypotheses.
Basically, a hypothesis is a prediction. It is an educated guess as to how a scientific experiment will turn out. It is an educated guess because it is based on previous research, training, observation, and a review of the relevant research literature. For the purposes of.
This is why, for example, we can be more confident of research results that are consistent with a causal-directional hypothesis, than is the case of findings that are consistent with a non-directional hypothesis.Download